Hawai'i’s 100% clean energy future

As Hawai'i accelerates its transition to a 100% renewable future by 2045, AES Hawai'i is partnering with utilities, communities, landowners and customers to deliver greener, smarter energy solutions and help ensure a responsible and equitable transformation to clean energy. Since the 1980s, our people have worked passionately to meet Hawai'i’s growing energy needs. Working together, we are co-creating solutions that support Hawai'i’s renewable generation goals, stabilize rates and increase reliability.

Contact us

We appreciate your interest and participation in Hawai'i's renewable energy future. We look forward to hearing your ideas and comments.

Community Outreach Representative:
Carrice Gardner 
Email: kuihelani2solar@aes.com
Project Hotline: +1 (808) 800-3942 


Project benefits

Low and stable electricity cost 

Under a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) approved by the Public Utilities Commission (PUC), the Project will deliver power at a fixed price over 25 years. The low, stable pricing helps protect against volatile fossil fuel prices. 

9.8% of island’s energy needs to be met with renewable energy

Upon completion, the Project is anticipated to power the equivalent of 18,425 homes and generate approximately 9.8% of Maui's energy needs. *

4,388,528 barrels of oil for electricity generation avoided over project's lifetime 

The Project is expected to result in total avoided fuel consumption of 4,388,529 barrels of oil over its 25-year span. *

Project summary

Kūihelani Solar Phase 2 is a proposed 40 MWac solar photo-voltaic array and 160 MWh Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) project to be developed and operated by AES Hawai‘i.

The project is located in Central Maui, approximately 5 miles south of Kahului, on a project study area of 734 acres of land owned by Mahi Pono. The preliminary project footprint is expected to be up to 300 acres.

  • Specifications: 40 MWac solar photovoltaic array plus 160 MWh containerized lithium-ion Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). 
  • Preliminary Project Area: The preliminary project area comprises approximately 300 acres of land. As design work continues through community feedback and additional due diligence, AES Hawai‘i hopes to reduce the project area even further.
  • Project Study Area: AES Hawai‘i studied roughly 734 acres to responsibly site the Project Area, avoid sensitive features, and minimize potential impacts. The current project area comprises only 40% of the total study area.
  • Power-Purchase Agreement: The project will deliver power to serve Maui residents under a 25-year Power Purchase Agreement with Hawaiian Electric at a low, fixed cost over that timespan.
  • Decommissioning: AES Hawaiʻi will restore the land to its existing condition (or comparable) at the end of the project’s life, consistent with the land agreement with Mahi Pono.

Project Name

Kuihelani Solar Phase 2, LLC


The AES Corporation

Project Capacity (MW)

40 MW AC

Proposed Facility Location

Central Maui

TMK(s) of Facility Location

TMK: (2) 3-8-005-002

Point of Interconnection’s Circuit

  1. MPP-Waena 69kV
  2. MPP-Waiinu 69kV

Project site maps


Project vicinity map

Preliminary project area

Proposed interconnection route

The Project is proposing to interconnect to Maui Electric Company's grid at the existing MPP-Waiinu and MPP-Waena 69kV lines approximately 2,450’ and 2,250’ away from the proposed newly built Hawaiian Electric Company 69kV switchyard. 

Environmental Permits and Approvals Strategy
  • Perform extensive due diligence on the site;
  • Identify community organizations, area leaders and key stakeholders;
  • Engage early and often with aforementioned individuals and organizations to share information and gather feedback; and
  • Proactively consult with resource and permitting agencies.



Initial Community Assessment and Outreach

Initial community outreach and early-stage sentiment survey completed; community outreach and engagement will continue throughout Project development 

Permit Assessment

The assessment of permits and the required land use approvals needed is complete

Title and Easement Review


Archaeological Resources

Literature Review and Field Investigation (LRFI) completed; Archaeological Inventory Survey (AIS) to be conducted

Cultural Resources

Preliminary assessment completed; further assessment to be conducted 

Biological Resources

Desktop assessment completed; field survey to be conducted

Waters of the U.S. Delineation and Jurisdictional Determination

To be conducted

Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA)

Phase I ESA completed 

Geotechnical and Soils Investigation

Desktop geotechnical assessment (inclusive of site visits and consultation with local civil/geotechnical firms) completed; full geotechnical and soils investigation to be conducted

Visual Resources

Visual simulations and glare assessment to be conducted

Traffic Impact Assessment

Traffic impact assessment to be conducted  

Complementary Agricultural Uses

Preliminary agricultural assessment in development; to be refined 





Project schedule

The proposed timeline for project development and execution is included below. Please note: this schedule is subject to change and will be updated as necessary.

Based on these land use and zoning designations, the proposed solar and energy storage facility is a permitted use. No changes in the land use district or zoning classification are expected to be required for Project implementation.


State Land Use District:


Land Study Bureau Soil Classification:

Classes B, C and E

HRS Chapter 205 Important Agricultural Land Designation:

Approximately 85 percent of the Project area designated as IAL (A&B 2009) 

Maui County Zoning District

Agricultural (approximately 95 percent), Open Space/Zone and Road (approximately 5 percent)

Maui Island Plan Designation

Outside Directed Growth Boundary

Kīhei-Mākena Community Plan Land Use Designation

Agriculture and Open Space 

Special Management Area (SMA)

Approximately 99 percent of the Project area is located outside of the SMA. All Project facilities are expected to be located outside of the SMA. 


Based on a preliminary review, the following determinations have been made:

U.S. Federal

  • Filing of notice with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

Maui County

  • County Special Use Permit(s) (CUP) from Planning Commission

  • Building Permit

  • Grading and Grubbing permit

State of Hawaii

  • State Special Use permit from Land Use Commission

  • Chapter 6E Compliance (Historic Preservation Review) by the State Historic Preservation Division

  • Certain construction-related State permits may be required, including:

    • National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit

    • Noise Permit


Listing of anticipated Permits and Approvals

Anticipated Permit/Approval
Authority Having Jurisdiction

State Special Use Permit (SUP) 

Maui County Planning Commission and State Land Use Commission 

County Special Use Permit (CUP) 

Maui County Planning Commission 

HRS Chapter 6E Compliance (Historic Preservation Review) 

State Historic Preservation Division (SHPD) 

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit 

State of Hawaiʻi Department of Health (DOH), Clean Water Branch 

Noise Permit

DOH, Indoor and Radiological Health Branch

Building Permit

County of Maui Department of Public Works

Grading and Grubbing Permit 

Maui County Department of Public 

Filing of Notice 

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 

AES Hawai'i and its environmental consultant conducted a preliminary assessment of the environmental conditions at the site based on a review of publicly available maps, studies and previous environmental reports prepared for the property. More detailed information is being obtained through the due diligence and site-specific studies, as well as community feedback, and will be used to inform the design process.

The Project design will seek to avoid and minimize environmental impacts to the extent possible. Best Management Practices (BMPs) will be implemented to further minimize impacts throughout the Project lifecycle.

Feedback will be collected throughout the Project lifecycle, and updates will be provided as outlined in the Community Outreach section. To get the latest project information sign up to be placed on our mailing list.

Natural environment


Air Quality:
None of the equipment associated with the solar arrays or battery storage system emit air pollutants of any kind. Overall, the Project would provide a net benefit by replacing energy generated by burning fossil fuels with renewable energy, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.

A site‐specific biological survey would be conducted as part of the detailed due diligence effort and the results would be incorporated into the planning and design process; if any sensitive biological resources are identified during this survey, the appropriate steps will be taken to avoid, minimize and mitigate potential impacts. 

Natural Habitats and Ecosystems:
Based on available information, the Project area has been highly disturbed by past land uses, which has presumably reduced the number and abundance of native species. Data from a statewide habitat assessment by USGS characterize the Project area as predominately heavily disturbed habitat consisting of cultivated agriculture, intersected by areas of low-intensity development (e.g., roadways) and scattered patches of native/alien mix habitat comprised of alien dry grassland and alien dry forest. 

According to publicly available data from the NWI (USFWS 2022a), NHD (USGS 2022), and DAR dataset (DAR 2008), the Project area contains several water features. Both Pale‘a‘ahu Gulch and Waikapū Stream run from northwest to southeast through the central portion of the Project area. NHD and NWI data identify Pale‘a‘ahu Gulch as an intermittent stream that connects to Keālia Pond; DAR classifies Pale‘a‘ahu Gulch as a non-perennial stream that terminates in the central portion of the Project area. Waikapū Stream is perennial, with continuous flow present throughout the year. Pōhākea Gulch flanks the western side of the Project area. A group of freshwater wetlands identified by NWI are located near the southern

boundary of the Project area surrounding Keālia Pond. In addition, several ditches are present, including Waiheʻe Ditch which runs along the northern edge of the Project area. The location of these features would be confirmed through a field assessment and the jurisdictional status would be verified with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The Project would be designed to avoid discharge to any jurisdictional features such that no impacts to aquatic habitats are anticipated.

The Project would generate clean renewable energy that would replace the burning of fossil fuel for the production of electricity, thus offsetting greenhouse gas emissions and providing a beneficial impact on climate conditions. 

Ground disturbance during construction would be primarily related to driving steel posts to support the racking system for the solar panels, trenching for placement of electrical wiring, and excavation for foundations for the battery storage units, substation and interconnection facilities. All equipment will be removed, and the site restored after the life of the project leaving the soils in the same condition prior to construction. 

Topography and Geology:  
Topographic surveys have been conducted to inform project design as well as to minimize ground disturbance to the greatest extent practicable. Project design will continue to be refined as additional site studies are conducted.

Land regulation

Land Uses:
There will be no long-term impacts to future uses for this land. After the life of the PV + BESS facility the land will be restored for future uses.

Flood and Tsunami Hazards:
The Project has been sited to ensure Project infrastructure is outside the Hawai‘i Tsunami Evacuation Zone, and the Hawai‘i Department of Land and Natural Resources flood map’s flood zones A, AE, AEF, AH, AO, VE based on the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps.  

The Project is not anticipated to generate meaningful noise impacts when operational. However, AES Hawaiʻi still plans on performing a noise assessment and, if required, obtaining a noise permit for work during construction. 

Roadways and Traffic:
A Traffic Impact Analysis Report (TIAR) will be prepared and any required mitigation will be implemented during the construction phase of the project. Once operational and for the duration of the project, it is anticipated there will be minimal new traffic generation. 

This project is not expected to require any utilities during construction. 

Socio-economic characteristics

The site is currently vacant land with similar uses surrounding the Project site. AES Hawaiʻi utilized the State of Hawai‘i Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) Map of Electricity Burdens on Hawai'i Households by Census Tract to preliminarily assess the project’s location and distance from nearby residents and the energy burden (defined as percentage of gross household income spent on energy costs) of those closest communities. The site is located approximately 4.0 miles away from the nearest community with an average electricity burden of 2.70%. The site is located approximately 4.0 miles away from the nearest community with an average electricity burden of 2.70%.

According to the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) the Median energy burden nationally is 3.1% and the median low-income energy burden is 8.1%, which puts this area at slightly above the national average for non-low-income households. According to the same source, a high energy burden is considered to be above 6% and a severe energy burden above 10%.

Aesthetic/visual resources

A visual impact analysis will be conducted. The Project will be designed to minimize visual impacts to the extent practicable.

Solid waste

The facility is not anticipated to generate solid waste.

Hazardous materials

A Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) was conducted for the site and it was confirmed that no recognized environmental conditions (RECs), historical RECs (HRECs), or controlled RECs (CRECs) have been reported within the subject property.

Water quality

A Waters of the U.S. Delineation and Jurisdictional Determination will be conducted prior to construction and any potential jurisdictional water feature would be avoided such that the Project would not result in discharge to Waters of the U.S.

Public safety services (Police, Fire, Emergency Medical Services)

The project is located near dense population centers and has access to Public Safety Services.


The project site does not host any recreation activities and will not impact future recreation activities.

Potential cumulative and secondary impacts

The Project would directly contribute to the state’s renewable energy goals and in doing so would directly contribute to replacing a portion of electricity that is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other forms of pollution that are detrimental to the environment and human health.


AES Hawaiʻi is deeply committed to engaging with the community early and often throughout the project’s lifespan. 

AES Hawaiʻi takes the Archaeological and Cultural Resources review very seriously. As we have done for all Hawai‘i projects previously developed or currently in development, this project will undergo extensive Archaeological and Cultural reviews to gain a comprehensive understanding of the land and any potential impacts resulting from the proposed development. To the extent practicable, all steps will be taken to carefully record, avoid, and/or mitigate impacts to archeological and cultural resources. Past practices that may be utilized for this project include but are not limited to: hiring local on-island firms to perform an Archaeological Inventory Survey Report (AIS), Ka Pa'akai Analysis, Cultural Literature Review, Archeological Literature Review and Field Inspection Report and Cultural Impact Assessment (CIA). These initiatives will often include interviews and consultation with lineal and cultural descendants, kupuna, Native Hawaiian Organizations (NHOs), agencies and area cultural leaders, and presentations to interested groups and parties. 

AES Hawaiʻi has engaged a local archeological firm and cultural consultancy to conduct early-stage initial analysis that identifies: 

  • valued cultural, historical, or natural resources in the area in question, including the extent to which traditional and customary native Hawaiian rights are exercised in the area; 
  • the extent to which those resources – including traditional and customary native Hawaiian rights – will be affected or impaired by the proposed action; and 
  • the feasible action, if any, to be taken to reasonably protect any identified cultural, historical, or natural resources in the area in question, and the reasonable protection of traditional and customary native Hawaiian rights in the affected area. 

AES Hawaiʻi has also engaged the firm to perform an Archaeological Literature Review and Field Inspection Report (LRFI) for the proposed Project area. 

In addition, the firm will conduct a preliminary cultural review and Cultural Literature Review (CLR) to understand and anticipate potential cultural resource impacts.

LRFI Findings Summary

The LRFI investigation was conducted – through historical, cultural, and archaeological background research and field inspection of the Project area.

The results of the LRFI recommend an AIS be conducted, for which AES Hawaiʻi has secured proposals. 

Ka Pa'akai Analysis

AES Hawaiʻi is committed to conducting a Ka Pa'akai Analysis. In addition, AES Hawaiʻi will consult with SHPD to determine whether a CIA is warranted based on the results of the CLR and Ka Pa'akai Analysis. 

AES Hawaiʻi is deeply committed to being an active, invested member of the communities we serve. 



      AES Hawaiʻi has a track record of successfully and sensitively engaging with the community and stakeholders in the vicinity of the proposed project. 

      Continuing to identify communities and other interested stakeholders affected by the project is an essential part of project planning. Upon award, the AES Hawaiʻi team will engage area organizations and leaders to provide timely and relevant project information and collect feedback to refine and finalize the project’s design with community input. 

      We intend to make every effort to keep the following list up to date throughout the Project’s lifecycle. Preliminarily, AES Hawaiʻi has identified the following organizations, community leaders, and key decision-makers that will be engaged in the project outreach process:

      • Waikapū Community Association 
      • Alliance of Maui Community Associations
      • Area Council member Tasha Kama
      • Area Council member Alice Lee 
      • Senator Troy N. Hashimoto 
      • Representative Justin H. Woodson
      • Maui Chamber of Commerce
      • Maui Economic Development Board
      • Maui Economic Opportunity
      • Maui Lani Community Association
      • Mahi Pono
      • Hoolu ʻAina Farms LLC
      • Puʻu Kukui Watershed"

      In addition, AES Hawaiʻiʻs standard practice is to ask these stakeholders to help identify others that should be contacted to continually expand its outreach.


      Comprehensive communications plan

      A significant goal of AES Hawaiʻi's Community Outreach Plan is to inform stakeholders and neighboring communities about the Project and its progress and collect their feedback. AES Hawaiʻi will build upon our previous experience to provide timely updates through a detailed community outreach schedule. AES Hawaiʻi is committed to sharing important information about projects in advance of any community meetings. Specific tactics to share information and gather input will include, but are not limited to: 

      • Issuance of Public Community Meeting Notice(s)
      • Conducting Public Community Meeting(s)
      • Conducting strategic outreach to area organizations, community leaders, and elected officials
      • Dedicated email address (kuihelani2solar@aes.com) to gather input, comments, and questions
      • Dedicated Project phone number (+1 (808) 800-3942)
      • Construction and status updates will be posted on the Project website (https://www.aes-hawaii.com/hawaii/project/kuihelani-solar-phase-2)
      • Issuance of monthly project status updates to our project mailing list; and
      • Public Community Meeting Summary.
      Our community engagement process will:

      Inform stakeholders and neighboring communities of the Project by communicating potential environmental, social, economic, and land use changes, and answer their questions. 

      AES Hawaiʻi will continue to plan for either in-person or virtual community meetings based on public health and safety conditions at the time. To support community awareness of meetings, AES Hawaiʻi will issue media advisories a minimum of 30 days prior to a public meeting to Maui and statewide media, including but not limited to:  Maui News, Maui Now, Civil Beat, Hawaii News Now, KHON2 News, and KITV4 News. Additionally, we will advertise in area community publications and provide email notifications to stakeholders and those who have signed up to be on our project mailing list. 

      Public comments in support of and in opposition to the proposed Project will be compiled and filed with the Public Utilities Commission.

      AES Hawaiʻi believes in the importance of maintaining community collaboration and consultation throughout the project lifecycle and has successfully implemented this strategy with Hawaiian Electric Company's RFP Phase 1 & 2 projects. Throughout this process, collecting, considering, and responding to feedback from the stakeholders and neighboring communities enabled AES Hawaiʻi to garner support and tailor each Project to address and mitigate community-identified issues or concerns.

      One of the earliest steps we take when undertaking a new project is to engage area community leaders, elected officials, residents, key government and industry organizations, and businesses. This approach enables AES Hawaiʻi to share information about a given project, build support and identify issues of concern so that we may respond to feedback from stakeholders and neighboring communities and develop mitigation measures. 

      As an initial step in the strategic community outreach process, AES Hawaiʻi has conducted a survey of residents in Central Maui to gauge community sentiments and identify issues of importance. 

      Construction Related updates

      AES Hawaiʻi is committed to providing project status updates via email to our project mailing list,  at least once per month and in conjunction with key milestones to ensure community members and stakeholders have the opportunity to provide public comment as required by the RFP. 

      Local Labor Partnerships

      AES Hawaiʻi has a history of working with local labor organizations, including:

      • Hawaiʻi Carpenters Union
      • International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local 1186 
      • Hawaiʻi Laborers Union, Local 368

      • Hawaiʻi Operating Engineers, Local 3

      AES Hawaiʻi is deeply committed to maintaining these partnerships and providing opportunities for local residents to work in the renewable energy industry.


      Local community support or opposition

      AES Hawaiʻi has already conducted early-stage outreach by commissioning a public opinion survey to understand community sentiment regarding the proposed Project.

      The public opinion poll provides initial documentation of the community’s support for the Project. Of the Maui residents who responded to our survey, the majority (70%) said they would support a solar and battery storage project capable of powering the equivalent of 17,500 homes sited on approximately 400 acres in Central Maui. The majority of residents who supported the Project cited that it would be good for the environment or climate and would reduce the cost of electricity. Similarly, more than half support it because it would help to cut down on fossil fuel use. Other key reasons for support of the Project include the understanding that it would create new jobs and be good for the community and the economy. These results will help shape our strategy for communicating the Project’s overall benefits.

      During our ongoing community engagement process, AES Hawaiʻi will directly engage and listen carefully to community feedback regarding the Project. Project support and opposition will be identified through this process, along with community-identified concerns about project design, location, and potential impacts.  


      Community outreach efforts 


      As mentioned above, AES Hawaiʻi commissioned a public opinion to proactively seek early-stage community feedback and de-risk this Project. The confidential survey includes responses from 359 residents in Central Maui communities and gauges their level of support or opposition to this potential solar plus battery project sited on approximately 400 acres of land in Central Maui between Kūihelani Highway and Maui Veterans Highway in Kīhei.

      In addition to the survey, AES Hawaiʻi will continue to host community meetings and meet with key leaders to provide opportunities for project feedback. The project website and dedicated email address will provide an additional venue to gather input, and answer their questions.

      Community benefits

      An early-stage community consultation occurred through a survey of Central Maui residents. The survey provided insights into the type of community benefits Central Maui residents value most. These findings are the first step in soliciting feedback and understanding the community-identified needs of Central Maui. 

      As community engagement continues for this project, AES Hawaiʻi will seek further guidance from stakeholders on appropriate benefits the community would support. The project website and dedicated email address will be another venue for us to gather input from the host community.

      Annual Community Benefits Commitment

      AES Hawaiʻi commits to setting aside a minimum of $3,000 per MW AC per year for community benefits aimed at addressing specific needs identified by the Host Community or to a 501 (c)(3) non-profit community-based organization(s) to address Host Community-identified needs. 

      AES Hawaiʻi understands that each community in Hawaiʻi is unique with different concerns and different needs. Our early-stage outreach is our initial effort to understand these concerns and needs and will inform future engagement. As part of the initial community meeting and continued engagement with the host community throughout every stage of the Project, AES Hawaiʻi will consult and solicit feedback and guidance from the community on where these funds are needed the most. This feedback will serve as the foundation of the Community Benefits Package for this Project and ensure it is specifically tailored for residents affected by the Project. 

      Additional Community Benefits

      Additional Project benefits and impacts were assessed through the commissioning of a preliminary economic and fiscal analysis. The analysis performed was based on preliminary project schedules, preliminary conceptual design and in constant 2023 dollars. 

      1. Project construction will result in economic output benefiting Hawai‘i's economy.

      2. Local Labor & Prevailing Wage 

      • AES Hawaiʻi has existing partnerships with local unions and a proven track record of generating meaningful local employment opportunities with living wages. 
      • Construction will contribute to the creation of direct, indirect and induced jobs benefiting the local labor market.

      3. The project provides fixed, reliable renewable energy prices compared to the fluctuating cost of fossil fuels.

      4. Upon completion, the Project is estimated to power the equivalent of approximately 18,425 homes with clean, renewable energy annually. *

      5. Anticipated to generate approximately 9.81% of Maui's energy needs. *

      6. Approximately 175,541.12 barrels of oil/year would be avoided. *

      7. The energy produced from this Project will help the state achieve its goal of 100% renewable energy generation by 2045 and offset reliance on price-volatile, imported fossil fuel.

      8. The Project is anticipated to reduce environmental impacts and increase energy resilience with local renewable power production.

       As predevelopment of the Project proceeds, additional opportunities for benefits will be explored in direct collaboration with the area communities. 

      * Subject to change based on further analysis.